Solar energy – generation & applications – AC vs DC

‘High Voltage’ – transmission & usage

Following on from our recent post on our Solar Power System – On Grid Project, the observation has been made that it’s rather inefficient to generate power as DC electricity, and convert it to a higher AC voltage, before converting it back again to DC to suit many consumer applications.

Voltage multiple conversion

The issue of use of AC or DC is not a new one. Famously, in 1893, Thomas Edison who promoted the generation and use of DC ‘lost’ the battle to George Westinghouse who gained acceptance for the generation of AC at the Chicago World’s Fair, since it was more efficient in long-distance transmission.

This has been the situation for more than a century and still applies with generation at remote power stations and transmission at high AC voltage to feed and satisfy local demand. The 240V (in the UK) AC mains electricity that is delivered to a household is perfectly suitable in this form for domestic high power applications i.e. cooker, washing machine, etc. On the other hand, electricity is used for variety of low-voltage DC devices and gadgets e.g. phones, TVs, computers and so on, contain power adapters converting AC to DC and stepping down to typically 12v or 5v USB. Lighting is traditionally AC, but with advancement in LED technology could be of a lower DC voltage.

The development of locally generated solar energy changes things somewhat. The generation output is low voltage DC. The majority of this generated electricity is utilised locally. Excess energy can be stored in batteries, which are also low voltage DC. This could be used in this form, but in order for a household to be able to supplement locally generated energy, when the sun doesn’t shine (night time / winter), it still has to be wired to receive AC from the grid-based electricity. Also, to facilitate the export of excess energy (an increasingly valuable benefit of domestic solar power generation), the locally generated electricity must be converted to grid-compatible AC, using an inverter.

It should be the case that houses of the future are designed and built with solar panels on the roof. Indeed, it is now the case they are cheaper that slate, and so the materials and labour charges would be negligible costs if part of the build rather than as an add-on. In which case, the building could be designed with 12V DC and 5V USB supplementary to the 240V AC for mains wiring, feeding appliances directly at the type of voltage they require, eliminating power rectifiers and most voltage converters.

This ‘direct supply’ is already demonstrated in our Solar energy off-grid eBike charger project with the generated supply connected to a AA / AAA / C / D / PP3 battery charger using its 12V DC input (bypassing a 240V AC input, which requires internal conversion). The 12V supply also feeds LED lights without voltage conversion.

Charging batteries from 12V DC Solar Energy

Similarly, the 5V USB outputs of the solar charger controller can charge iPhones and other gadgets.

Solar Charge controller with 5V DC USB sockets

‘Highway to Hell’ – EV charging & V2X

We know that Electric Vehicles (EVs) are going to be increasingly in use and will gradually take over from petrol and diesel engines.

PHEV charging

And so the ability to charge these at home will be increasingly important and convenient. Some cars are already of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) type, meaning that they can be charged from a domestic UK 240V AC supply for local use. 

Another key development is the concept of EV batteries being used as supplementary storage for a household, so called ‘Vehicle to Home’ (V2H), ‘Vehicle to Building / Business’ (V2B) or ‘Vehicle to Grid’ (V2G) [collectively V2X indicating bi-directional, as opposed to single direction V1G], charging at low demand and discharging when household usage is greater, or to take advantage of higher export pricing.

V2X Charging types

The AC supply is needed to be converted to a DC voltage useable by the car batteries, and similarly the car’s electricity needs converting from DC to AC for household export. There are two ways of achieving this, by having a converter in the charger or the car. But if the premises has its own source of accessible DC power, ideally sourced from locally generated solar energy, then this conversion would be unnecessary.

AC vs DC charging

Another issue is that UK 240V AC is limited to 13A supply from standard household sockets (for most domestic use) providing slow charging at 3kW. A dedicated charging point using a UK Type 2 connection is an improvement with direct connection to the mains consumer unit, providing charging at 3.6kWh from a 16V AC supply or 7.4 KW from a 32V AC supply. Faster charging is possible with 11kW from 32A AC supply or faster still with 22kW from 63A AC supply, but these are more expensive, beyond the available power of many households and require a 3-phase supply.

The European Union has specified the Combined Charging System (CCS) standard to permit both AC and DC charging. Much faster and more efficient charging at 100kW and beyond is possible using DC charging, eliminating the conversion in the vehicle. However, this is currently an even more expensive solution and limited to EVs that can accept a compatible DC input. Charging at commercial sites such as motorway service stations offer a variety of standards, including the CCS (Europe), CHAdeMO (Japan), GB/T (China) or Tesla Supercharger (propriety).  

EV charging service station offering both CHAdeMO and CCS standards

This conversion and compatibility issue is not confined to motor vehicles. As highlighted in the Solar energy off-grid eBike charger project, conversion using an inverter is necessary from the 12V DC power generated from the Solar Panel and stored in the battery, to 240V AC used by the required charger, which then converts again into 36V DC. The problem is not just related to type and size of voltage, as the lithium batteries used require special adapters to perform the charging correctly. It would be possible to produce these fed from a specialist DC adapter, but such chargers are more difficult (and expensive) to obtain, given that the domestic supplies are generally not available in this form and so consequently the demand for these products is not yet there.

‘Thunderstruck’ – Solar powered cooling (mini project)

Given the current heat-wave and the likely-hood of more temperature extremes as a result of climate change, coupled with cost-of-energy crises and possible supply shortages, it seemed appropriate to build another solar power project, this time focusing on powering a cooling fan with energy from the sun.

The concept is relatively straight-forward: using solar energy to assist with cooling. When sitting out and the sun is shining and the temperature is too hot, the sensible thing to do is shelter under some shade. But when there is little-to-no breeze, even in the shade it gets too hot to bare. In which case, a simple fan can help. The one selected was an old, cheap USB model, which provides a limited amount of cooling, but doesn’t require much energy to operate. Also chosen was a small, also old, and low-cost 6V solar panel, which provides just enough energy to power a USB device using a suitable conversion lead.

Solar powered fan

But this isn’t particularly robust since a slight drop in sunshine can stop the set-up working. Hence this has been additionally paired with a battery power bank, which can simultaneously be charged with the solar energy whilst also powering the fan.

Solar powered fan with battery bank

Naturally, the battery pack can be charged separately – ideally powered by locally generated and stored solar energy!

Charging the battery bank from solar energy

‘For those about to Rock’ – the Electric future

Hopefully this has been food for thought into the exciting fast developing world of solar power generation and the electric future. Please get in touch if you have questions, comments or ideas to share. 

@YellowsBestLtd our mission is in “Keeping Customers Operational”. We’re always keen to enhance our range of #business services, increase the #enterprise infrastructure we support and expand our mix of #sustainable solutions we offer for supply and maintenance of new and legacy #technologies and products for our customers. 

Please help us understand your management services or solutions requirements, whether you’re implementing new systems or maintaining existing infrastructure networks to serve your operational business needs. 

Solar Power System (on-grid) project

‘Free’ electricity from the sun

Obtaining low-cost renewable solar energy has always had much appeal, but historically the investment costs has been rather off-putting, especially in the U.K. where it is perceived that the climate doesn’t provide a reliable enough amount of sunshine.

Available sunlight for power generation

However, in recent years a number of things have changed this evaluation. Performance improvements in solar panels and associated power inverters have resulted gains in energy creation, coupled with the availability of modern battery arrays substantial enough to store the energy produced for later reuse. At the same time, shocks to world fuel prices have results in a rapid shorting of the ‘payback period’; once it was considered that a typical household solar installation would take in the order of 25 years to recoup the investments costs. This has tumbled to around an estimated 8 years based on calculations made last year, and taking into account the recent price increases for domestic electricity supply, the period could be approaching 4 years with further shortening likely as energy prices continue to rise. The recent removal of VAT by the UK government on the implementation of solar energy systems is an added boost.

One additional further benefit that has recently arisen is the introduction by some power utility companies, such as Octopus Energy, of ‘agile’ export tariffs, which pay increased amounts at peak demand times. This can be taken advantage of by the use of smart meters, supplying surplus generated or stored energy to the grid at the best times to maximise revenue, offsetting the purchase of electricity from the grid at other times.

Given that the future is anticipated to require increasing use of electricity to provide power for EV cars and hybrid vehicles, generating your own electricity makes increasing sense. 

Overview of our implemented system

Solar Power System overview

Given the now obvious benefits of a solar energy, we have acted accordingly and implemented a system, which has the following component parts:

  • 13x 385W JA Solar Monocrystalline Panels with PERC technology, limited by the available roof space, but sufficient for energy needs.
  • Alumero Mounting accessories & Tigo Optimisers to enhance performance when part of the solar array is shaded.
  • Luxpower Hybrid Auto Inverter, 16A single phase, to convert the generated 12V DC electricity to 240V AC for household consumption or export.
  • 4.8 kW Aoboet Uhome battery storage array to store excess energy for later use.
  • AC and DC isolators to connect the component system parts.
  • Generation meter to measure energy production.
  • Wifi Monitoring portal for displaying instantaneous and historical performance.

The calculated annual yield for this system is 3,679kWh, which should be enough to fulfil the household’s electricity needs, estimated at 3,207kWh based on previous usage. 

Solar Panels – the ‘heart’

Monocrystalline Solar panels

Key to the collection of energy from the sun are naturally the solar panels. These vary in size, and technology is improving continuously, so the latest available are more efficient than previous generations.

Those selected for this project were 13 x 385W JA Solar Monocrystalline Panels with latest PERC (Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell) technology. Monocrystalline are more expensive but more efficient, with a longer lifespan than other types available. PERC technology improves light capture near the rear surface, optimising electrons flow and thereby achieving higher efficiencies.

Solar Panels installed on the Roof

The amount produced by a solar array naturally depends on sunlight hours and will be much lower with poor weather or as daylight reduces, whilst household electricity demand also varies during the day.

The ultimate aim of using solar power is to reduce as far as practically possible the need to source energy from the grid. Consequently, a larger array of modules than those just to meet the typical usage amount is needed to ensure adequate production whatever the weather, with the excess being stored or exported. 

Mounting fixtures
Optimisers

Alumero mounting kits were used for fixing the solar panels to the property roof, together with Tigo optimisers which maximise the generation from each panel. Without such optimisation, the power output from all solar modules can be reduced when some of the array is in shade. 

DC Isolators

DC isolators connect two ‘strings’ of series connected panels to the Hybrid Inverter.

Hybrid Inverter – ‘the brains’

In order for the system to be truly useful, power conversion and energy management functions are needed, to ensure a seamless and uninterrupted supply of electricity from the available sources i.e. an appropriate mix of the local generation, storage and grid supply. Chosen for this installation was a Lux Hybrid Automated 16 Amp single phase inverter.  

Inverter

The Hybrid Inverter ensures that when solar energy is available i.e. during daylight hours, this is firstly routed to provide for domestic consumption, and then used to charge the battery storage (as required, if not full). Any additional energy is exported to the external grid. When there is not enough energy generation from the solar array, the hybrid inverter routes the energy storage to the household, and when this is depleted, electricity is imported from the grid in the usual way. Critically, where to source electricity from is completely seamless such that the domestic consumption is never interrupted and the household is unaware of these ‘decisions’ being made.

It’s the inverter’s job to take the DC electricity produced by the solar panels and turn it into 240V AC electricity for household use. It’s a sad fact that many domestic appliances then take this 240V AC and convert it back to DC and lower voltages like 12V and 5V; this double conversion adding theoretical inefficiencies. But this is simpler to implement than rewiring the entire building and trying to then integrate with power to and from the grid.

AC Isolator
AC Isolator

AC Isolators connect the Inverter’s output to the household electricity supply.

Batteries – ‘the memory’

Quite literally, ‘saving for a rainy day’ is the function of the batteries, which add to the capability and capacity of solar power generation. They are effectively ‘optional’ since the system can be run without them. But since there is a huge natural variation between maximum sunlight and night-time, it makes sense to capture excess energy at peak times, and use this when sunlight is not available or sufficient. 

Chosen for this project were 2x Aoboet Uhome-LFP 2400 providing 4.8kW of storage capacity.

Batteries

At the beginning of a day, the batteries are naturally somewhat depleted, and therefore excess solar energy is initially used to charge them. Once full, they remain ‘on standby’ until later when generation is unable to fulfil the immediate electricity needs, in which case they start discharging their stored energy. Ideally, they will not become completely depleted over the course of the day and night, so that energy is not needed to be imported from the grid.

Grid – import / export

Electricity from the grid is the “insurance” for times when the solar energy is not able to fulfil demand. Naturally, this is likely to be due to a lack of winter daylight hours and/or poor weather, which of course has to be paid for.

Generation Meter

But at other times, there will be an excess of energy that can be exported to earn back some of these costs. A Generation Meter as part of the solar energy system enables this export of electricity.

Smart Meter
WiFi Monitor

The bi-directional energy flow is measured with a ‘smart’ meter using a suitable import / export tariff from the Utility company, such as the Octopus with their Agile tariff, and displayed on an associated WiFi monitor.

As to be expected, the amount paid by the Utility for kWh export is considerably less than that charged for import, so it’s worth making best use of the generated and stored energy as much as possible, like running appliances when the sun shines!   

EPS socket

An EPS (Emergency Power Supply) socket was additionally included in this project. Though optional, it was chosen for providing ‘backup power’ from the solar energy system in the event of a power outage from the grid supply. It is standard practice in such an event to shut off the export to the grid from solar energy systems to avoid difficulties whilst restoration work is in progress. But during such a period, the household can make use of the generated and stored local energy, for a limited time and restricted to a maximum of 13A. Avoiding excessive consumption, it should be possible to maintain a local supply for 12 hours, assuming a fully charged battery array.

MCS Certificate

To complete the project to become an ‘energy generator’ (as well as satisfying own consumption needs), an MCS (Microgeneration Certificate Scheme) certificate is issued, together with receiving acceptance documentation from the DNO (District Network Operative). This then allows the establishment of the export tariff with the Utility provider so that payments for excess energy exported will be made. 

Operating performance

A WiFi Portal provides the householder with an overview of the current operation of the solar energy system, displaying instantaneous status and historical energy performance for tracking generation yield and import / energy export.

WiFi Portal

Initially, it can be reported that average energy yield is around 0.86kWh, ranging between a typical peak of 2-4kW during the day and zero at night, compared with average consumption of approximately 0.35kWh, with the excess charging the batteries in the morning and exporting to the grid during the rest of the day. During the night, the consumption is met from the battery storage, with the batteries depleted to around 11% by the next day. It is noted that even during relatively cloudy days, at least around 10% of the 5kWh maximum power is generated, enough to at least meet the immediate consumption needs and even provide some battery replenishment.

A complete picture of the operating performance of the solar energy system will be known after a full year, taking into account the peak of summer and the shortest winter daylight period. Rising costs of electricity will also impact on the longer-term cost savings anticipated. 

Conclusions

Hopefully this ‘project description’ is of interest and perhaps of use to anyone contemplating installing a Solar Energy system at their home or office premises. Please feel free to get in touch if you would like us to provide consultancy advice (on a no-obligation FOC basis) leading to a quotation for establishing your own system, or just to gain an in-depth appraisal and more information from our first-hand experience of implementing a Solar Energy system. 

System Schematic

Our summary of conclusions at this stage having now implemented a system are:

  1. Solar energy collection has developed rapidly in recent years, particularly now that home energy storage is practical enough to capture excess energy during peak daylight and release it for use during the night or whenever demand exceeds generation.
  2. Although such systems are still a significant investment, given the recent escalation in energy costs, the ‘break-even’ point has reduced dramactically and the trend is for energy costs to continue to rise thereby making the payback period increasingly shorter.
  3. An attractive feature is the notion of being paid to supply energy to the grid, though it should be noted that currently at best this is 7.5p per kWh, so unlikely to be a significant revenue source. But it does mean that energy bills over the longer term will be vanishingly small.
  4. The contribution to the nation’s renewable energy mix helps in a small way to aid the drive to reduced carbon emissions and tackle climate change. 
  5. Naturally, a suitable oriented roof or land space for solar panel installation is required, as well as a location for housing the inverter and batteries (loft space is ideal). Plus, it should be noted that a PV cable needs to be installed (most likely running down the outside wall of the building) to link the inverter to the consumer unit.
  6. Should power cuts from the grid occur in the future, the solar energy system is capable (thanks to the EPS socket) of providing power for a limited period to maintain household electricity use.
  7. With the increasing use of electric cars (all new will need to be at least hybrid by 2030), being able to source local renewable energy will make increasing sense.

@YellowsBestLtd our mission is in “Keeping Customers Operational”. We’re always keen to enhance our range of #business services, increase the #enterprise infrastructure we support and expand our mix of #sustainable solutions we offer for supply and maintenance of new and legacy #technologies and products for our customers. 

Please help us understand what would be of interest to you by getting in touch to discuss your management services or solutions requirements, whether you’re implementing new systems or maintaining existing infrastructure networks to serve your operational business needs. We look forward to hearing from you.

Spares

Support for new and legacy systems

Our mission is with “Keeping Customers Operational”. One of the ways we accomplish this aim is by supplying spare parts for infrastructure systems, which are typically established, long-standing and therefore proven and fit-for-purpose. It makes sense to maintain and extend the life of these systems, as wholesale replacements will be costly and disruptive. This is particularly applicable when the service requirements have not changed, so functionality upgrades are not necessary.

Sometimes new product spares can be sourced, either manufactured to order, or from surplus stocks. Often when product ranges have been discontinued, the items can still be supplied as refurbished, working and tested elements, having been extracted from decommissioned networks.

Requirements for spare parts vary across a wide range of technologies and are usually sourced to support ‘legacy’ networks, but we also receive requests for new products to supplement the scope and capacity of more recently deployed systems.

@Yellowsbestltd would be keen to hear from you should you have any spares requirements. We have various elements in stock, and anything we don’t have immediately available we can usually source very quickly. Please get in touch to let us know what you need.

By example, there follows a list of a few recent requests we have been able to assist with. We look forward to hearing from you with any feedback you may have.

Recent spares requests

Part NumberDescription
D-21740Euro Connectors 3×7
D-21470 – Euro Connectors 3×7
Part NumberDescription
TU21206Subs/Subs

Part NumberDescription
T37885.02Ring Generator + DC/DC converter
T37885.02 – Ring Generator + DC/DC converter
Part NumberDescription
CC24101DN2 IU2
CC24101 – DN2 IU2
Part NumberDescription
ADR155cA155 BLK STM1/4 21E1 19″/ETSI CORE CHASSIS
Sagem ADR155c

Sagem ADR SDH family

‘Legacy’ telecoms history

The Sagem ADR product range was an SDH Add-drop Multiplexer (ADM) product family designed as a flexible platform for Metro Access and Metro Core, backhauling, microwave radio and Utilities infrastructure networks. 

ADR155c

The family included ADR155c and ADR622, STM-1/STM-4 ADM, and ADR2500 ‘eXtra’ and ADR10000, STM-16/STM-64 multi-service NG SDH. This range was managed by the IONOS Network Management System (NMS) which also managed Sagem Primary Multiplexers, PDH and SDH microwave radio and DWDM systems.

ADR622

 The ADR family was deployed worldwide with more than 60,000 units over 5 years.

Comprehensive Functionality

ADR2500 ‘eXtra’

The ADR platform offers a large variety of interfaces from E1 and E3, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, enabling the provision of a wide range of end Customer services. Transmission protection for guaranteed QoS is provided with SNCP, MSP, MS-SPRing as well as common unit and tributary protection.

The STM-16 network units can be used for multi STM-1 or STM-4 and local-cross connect functionality thanks to a fully non-blocking switch matrix.  

The modular and flexible housing provided by the ADR155c (2U), ADR622 (6U) and ADR2500 ‘eXtra’ (14U) 19” and ETSI subracks provide a flexible mix of office, street cabinet and equipment room deployment.

ADR10000

Continuing to provide operational service

The ADR family of SDH products continues to provide operational service with various global Operator, Utilities and Transport companies. 

@YellowsBestLtd supports requirements to maintain these networks by supplying various spare part items from refurbished and surplus stocks in perfect working order. 

There follows a list of the main elements that are typically provided, though other items can be provided. Please let us know of any specific requirements you may have. We look forward to being of assistance.

SAGEM ADR Spares List

Part CodeUnit typeDescription
AM101333 / 251 119 665ADR155cA155 BLK STM1/4 21E1 19″/ETSI CORE CHASSIS
AM101330 / 251 137 402ADR 21E120ADR BLK BNC 21E1/120 ITFE CARD
AM101328 / 251 137 366ADR IC1.1A155 BLK FC/PC IC1.1 OPTIC STM1 CARD
251 137 410ADR LAN1A155 BLK ADRLAN 10/100BT ETH ITFE CARD
AM101360 / 251 131 182ADR FANFAN MODULE
AM101670 / 251 137 431ADR EREA155 BLK BNC ELEC STM1 ITFE CARD

Optical Teleprotection Signalling (TPSO) Equipment (C37.94)

Electrical power systems protection

Teleprotection for power systems protection has been deployed by utility companies for many years. It’s purpose is to monitor the condition of the Electricity Grid, isolate faults, disconnecting faulty parts from the rest of the network and thereby prevent damage to critical parts of the power infrastructure.

Teleprotection is a physical interface between the telecommunications equipment and the electrical grid protection relays. When a fault occurs, the protection system switches on circuit breakers or reclosers to avoid a fault rippling through the network. Also, in the event of an outage, teleprotection helps restart power to a part of the grid.

Early teleprotection systems used voice-frequency signalling technologies. These were replaced by digital electrical Tele-Protection Signalling (TPS) equipment using 4 or 8 command channels encoded into a 64kbit/s standard digital data channel, in accordance with the ITU-T G.703 recommendations. This brought dependability and interoperability of systems, meaning that dedicated channels were no longer required as any standard digital transmission network could be used, separate from the power system.

This was later enhanced by the development of Tele-Protection Systems with Optical (TPSO) interfaces, which allowed the direct fibre connection between the teleprotection device and the primary multiplexer. 

The IEEE C37.94 standard for TPSO interfaces

The IEEE C37.94 standard defines an optical fibre interface for use between teleprotection systems and digital multiplexer equipment, operating at a data rate of nx64kbit/s. 

This allows the interconnection of different vendors teleprotection equipment with different vendors multiplexer equipment, without any restriction on the content of the nx64kbps data, using up to 2km of 50μm or 62.5μm multimode (or up to 20 km of 9μm single-mode) optical fibre.

Critical Systems deployment 

Teleprotection systems are typically installed in high-voltage transmission grids where distances are usually greater than in distribution grids and play a critical role in preventing instability in the grid and damage to expensive substation equipment.

Teleprotection systems monitor conditions on transmission lines and coordinate tripping of the transmission lines to quickly isolate faults. 

A teleprotection system usually has two components: a protection relay, which executes the actual switching; and the teleprotection equipment itself, which is the interface to the mission-critical communications network. 

Typical Teleprotection Systems Network

To ensure that the power systems are properly protected, real-time exchange of status information messages and commands between teleprotection equipment must be reliably transferred with tightly-controlled latency over a deterministic mission-critical communications network, traditionally composed of TDM multiplexers and optical PDH or SDH equipment. 

Nokia ‘Dynanet’ TPSO 24204

An example of a vendor’s multiplexer is the Nokia ‘Dynanet’ equipment family. This utilises the TPSO 24204 interface unit for connecting the teleprotection devices directly to the primary multiplexer. This provides four IEEE C37.94 standard interfaces, with nx64kbit/s optical data channels (where n is 1 to 12).

TPSO – 24204

Because of the direct connection, there is no need for a separate converter to change the optical connection to electrical. This eliminates electrical interference and data corruption caused by disturbances from the high voltage power line.

Your operational systems requirements

Let us know how we can assist you to keep your new and legacy systems operational with technical support, repair services and equipment spares. We look forward to hearing from you.

New and Legacy communication issues

Challenges with maintaining Legacy systems

It can make perfect sense to continue to run existing reliable and proven systems, especially if operational requirements have not changed. Alas, the developing nature of technology means that from time-to-time, issues arise. 

Changes to email encyption protocols 

Modern computer communication services support the Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption protocol. This aims to protect the information sent and received over a standard Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) connection between two computers while ensuring that they both agree and understand the method of data transfer.   

However, the earlier versions of TLS 1.0 and 1.1 have been deemed by the industry to be not secure enough and have been superseded by versions 1.2 and 1.3. You and/or your service provider may have already transitioned to the latest protocols. However, if you have old hardware running legacy software, as support from service providers is withdrawn, you may find your email stops working.

How you can tell if it’s an issue

If you’re using an Apple Mac then the Safari Browser has supported TLS 1.2 for web traffic protection since version 7 in 2013. However, if you’re still running ‘El Capitan’ OSX 10.11 with Apple Mail 9.3, it won’t support TLS 1.2 for email. Other computer hardware and software combinations may also run into problems.

Most browsers including Safari ended support for TLS 1.0 and 1.1 in March 2020, and various service providers have either already dropped or soon will withdraw operation of the older TLS protocols.

For instance, one.com will stop support of TLS 1.0 and 1.1 on 17th August 2021. Other service providers may have different end of life dates. If you’re using the one.com service then there’s an easy way to check:

send an email to:

protocol@tls-check.one.com.

This will provide an automated reply telling you what protocol you’re using (works with iPhones and iPads too), like this:

{
            “started”: true,
            “protocol”: “TLSv1.2”,
            “cipher”: “ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384”,
            “keysize”: 256
}

Other service providers may have similar methods of verifying the protocols, so it’s worth checking with them. Failing that, you may be able to examine the headers of your emails, to look for something like this:

version=TLS1_2 cipher=ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 bits=128/128

Solutions if you’re affected

To ensuring your email continues to function, the options include: 

  1. Updating your operating system. In the case of Apple Mail on Mac computers, this means moving to ‘Sierra’ OSX 10.12 as Mail cannot be separately upgraded.
  2. Using a different email client with TLS 1.2 support, e.g. Mozilla Thunderbird.
  3. Using a browser based solution for your email
  4. Changing your settings to send and receive email without encryption (not recommended) 

Balancing New Requirements and Legacy Support

If you want to stick with your current hardware and software choices, this does present a problem, particularly if you’re otherwise happy with your setup and are unable to upgrade.

Alas if you want full compatibility (and security) with the latest industry supported functionality, whilst retaining operation of other  legacy applications, consideration has to be made to invest in new hardware to run in parallel with older systems, which continue to be maintained to perform dedicated compatibility functions.

YellowsBest: Keeping Customers Operational

If you have similar or other new requirements and legacy maintenance needs, please get in touch to discuss how we may be of assistance to keep you operational.

New Year, New Stock! ‘Dynanet’ Spares

Nokia ‘Dynanet’ PDH Transmission products

For many years, the ‘Dynanet’ family of PDH Transmission telecoms products have well served Public Operator and Private Network Customers across the Telecoms, Utilities, Transport and Public Safety markets with high availability mission critical infrastructure, and indeed some networks are continuing to provide good operational service.

They were first introduced by Nokia over 20 years ago, and were continued in recent years by DNWP. Production of the majority of the product range was ceased in 2019. 

Spare parts for continued operational service

@YellowsBestLtd satisfies world-wide customer product sourcing requirements for current and ‘legacy’ equipment technologies from a wide range of Original Equipment Manufacturers (O.E.M.s).

For the ‘Dynanet’ range, we have recently obtained of a number of additional  refurbished and surplus equipment items. Hence, for those customers continuing to maintain their networks, there now exists the opportunity to increase stocks of spare parts to take advantage of the current availability.

Stocklist of items for immediate supply

Here is a list of the main items currently in stock, though there may be a few additional parts that can be supplied.  Hence, please check and if you do have any requirements, please let us know. We look forward to hearing from you.

Part NumberDescription
CC 24002DB2 2×2 Mb/s Branching Unit (B2), 75ohm
B2
DB2 B2 – CC 24002
Part NumberDescription
CC 24011DB2 2 Mb/s Switching Unit (X2), 75ohm
X2
DB2 X2 – CC 24011
Part NumberDescription
CC 24101DN2 2×2 Mb/s Interface Unit (IU2), 75ohm
IU2
DN2 IU2 – CC 24101
Part NumberDescription
CC 24111DN2 Control Unit (CU), 75 ohm
CG 24170DN2 Bus Power Unit (BPU)
CG 24171DN2 Extended Bus Power Unit (EBPU)
CU 24013Data Interface Unit (DIU) 2M, nx64k: G.703/704, 75ohm
nx64k
DIU nx64k – CU 24013
Part NumberDescription
D-21470Euro Connector, 3×7
3x7
Connector 3×7 – D-21470
Part NumberDescription
D-24204Optical Teleprotection Interface Unit, C37.94
C37.94
C37.94 – D-21470
Part NumberDescription
T31094.01DCN Adapter C4.0
DCNA
DCN Adapter C4.0 – T31094.01
Part NumberDescription
T37870.01NDM 19in 17-slot Subrack
Subrack
19in Subrack – T37870.01
Part NumberDescription
T37871.01NDM DN2 19in 17-Slot Subrack
T37882.02NDM DC Unit (NDUe)
NDUe
NDUe – T37882.02
Part NumberDescription
T37885.01NDM Ring Generator
Ring Generator – T37885.01
Part NumberDescription
T37885.02NDM Ring Generator + DC/DC converter
Ring Generator – T37885.02
Part NumberDescription
T37889.01NDM Backup Unit (NBU)
NDM Backup Unit – T37889.01
Part NumberDescription
T65580.01ACL2i PF GEN Line Terminal Card
ACL2i PF GEN – T65580
Part NumberDescription
TA 21513Optical Line Terminal Repeater (DF2-8), 1300 nm LED MM/SM
TA 21516Optical Line Terminal Repeater (DF2-8), 1300 nm LASER SM
TA 21518Optical Line Terminal Repeater (DF2-8), 1300 nm LASER LP
DF2-8 – TA 21518
Part NumberDescription
TC 21101DM2 Multiplexing Unit, 75ohm
DM2
DM2 – TC 21101
Part NumberDescription
TC 21301DM8 Multiplex Equipment, 75ohm
TC 21705Supervisory Substation
TC 21710.01TMS Adapter
TU 21122.5Data Interface Unit (DIU) 48..64k, V.11, 10ch
TU 21124Data Interface Unit (DIU) nx64k, V.11/V.35/X.21, 2ch
TU 21124.05Data Interface Unit (DIU) nx64k, V.11/V.35/X.21, sync
TU 21125Data Interface Unit (DIU) 48..64k with sync, X.21
DIU X.21 – TU 21125
Part NumberDescription
TU 21205Channel Unit SUB/SUB
TU 21206Channel Unit SUB/SUB
Channel Unit Subscriber / Subscriber – TU 21206
Part NumberDescription
TU 21215Channel Unit SUB/EXCH
TU 21216Channel Unit SUB/EXCH
Channel Unit Subscriber / Exchange – TU 21216
Part NumberDescription
TU 21234.20Channel Unit E&M/VF-P, 10 ch, 20 E&M ch
TU 21236.10Channel Unit 8ch E&M/uP: 1xUKe&m/VF
VF E&M
VF E&M – TU 21236.10
Part NumberDescription
TU 21255.01Channel Switch, 4 port

Maintenance of Legacy networks – Spares, Connectors and Cables

Continued use of Legacy Telecoms  – Nokia PDH ‘Dynanet’

Public Operator and Private Network Customers across the Telecoms, Utilities, Transport and Public Safety markets maintain ‘legacy’ infrastructure for mission critical applications, which continue to deliver good operational service with high availability. 

Typical products utilised are those from the ‘Dynanet’ family of PDH Transmission telecoms products, which were first introduced by Nokia over 20 years ago, and were continued in recent years by DNWP. Production of the majority of the product range was ceased in 2019. 

In order to maintain these systems and networks, it’s still possible to supply spares from surplus stocks and refurbished items to keep networks operational. 

Don’t forget the Connectors and Cables!

One challenge for the continued use of existing infrastructure, particularly when installing replacement parts, is sourcing the appropriate specialised and often propriety connectors for cabling of interfaces and management connections.  

Regarding ‘Dynanet’, fortunately some products can still be produced, notably the Euro / SMB connectors, along with the DCN Adapter C4.0, related management software products and other items such as the TPS64 and NDUE. Listed here are a few of those currently available new:

Part NumberDescription
21475
SMB Connector for RD179 cable
21472
Euro Connector 3×32
21470
Euro Connector 3×7
Euro Connector 3×7 – 21470
Part NumberDescription
24201TPS Control Unit
24202TPS Channel Unit
T37882.02NDM DC Unit, enhanced (NDUE)
T31094.01DCN Adapter C4.0
DCNA
DCN Adapter C4.0 – T31094.01

We are able additionally produce a wide range of cable products to suit most connection requirements, utilising our UK-based manufacturing partner.  Bespoke cable assemblies, control boxes, harnesses, wiring looms, panels, fibre optic products are some of the network solutions available. 

@YellowsBestLtd satisfies world-wide customer product sourcing requirements for current and ‘legacy’ equipment technologies from a wide range of Original Equipment Manufacturers (O.E.M.s), surplus stocks and refurbished items.

Hence, please check and if you do have any requirements, please let us know. We look forward to hearing from you.

Remaining stocks of Nokia ‘Dynanet’ spares – Update

Surplus and Refurbished Items for continued operational service

Many Customers have ‘legacy’ telecommunications networks which are continuing to provide good operational service. Particularly where functional requirements have not changed, it makes sense to avoid or delay costly and time-consuming change-out replacement projects, by obtaining spare parts.

@YellowsBestLtd satisfies world-wide customer product sourcing requirements for current and ‘legacy’ equipment technologies from a wide range of Original Equipment Manufacturers (O.E.M.s).

Stocklist of Nokia ‘Dynanet’ Spare Parts – Available for immediate supply

For the ‘Dynanet’ family of PDH Transmission telecoms products, which has provided 20+ years of service, we still have a few spare units are in stock and available for immediate supply. These items have been mostly retrieved from operational service during Customers’ decommissioning projects, and have been refurbished, tested and are warranted for working operation.

Given that production of the majority of the product range was ceased in 2019 or before, it is recommended to consider purchasing spare parts whilst there is still availability.

Here is a list of the main items currently in stock, though there may be a few additional parts that can be supplied.  Hence, please check and if you do have any requirements, please let us know. We look forward to hearing from you.

Part NumberDescription
CC 24002DB2 2×2 Mb/s Branching Unit (B2), 75ohm
CC 24011DB2 2 Mb/s Switching Unit (X2), 75ohm
CC 24101DN2 2×2 Mb/s Interface Unit (IU2), 75ohm
CC 24111DN2 Control Unit (CU), 75 ohm
CF 24186DN2 19in Subrack
CF 24186.09DN2 19in Subrack, grey-L91 EMC
CG 24170DN2 Bus Power Unit (BPU)
CG 24171DN2 Extended Bus Power Unit (EBPU)
CU 24013Data Interface Unit (DIU) 2M, nx64k: G.703/704, 75ohm
D-21470Euro Connector, 3×7
D-24204Optical Teleprotection Interface Unit, C37.94
T30506.0917-slot DYNANET Subrack
T30851.02Subrack Power Adapter (SPA)
T31094.01DCN Adapter C4.0
DCNA
DCN Adapter C4.0 – T31094.01
Part NumberDescription
T37870.01NDM 19in 17-slot Subrack
T37871.01NDM DN2 19in 17-Slot Subrack
T37882.01NDM DC Unit (NDU)
T37882.02NDM DC Unit (NDUe)
T37885.01NDM Ring Generator
Ring Generator – T37885.01
Part NumberDescription
T37885.02NDM Ring Generator + DC/DC converter
Ring Generator – T37885.02
Part NumberDescription
T37889.01NDM Backup Unit (NBU)
NDM Backup Unit – T37889.01
Part NumberDescription
T65520.01ACL2 RM DC Power Gen
T65580.01ACL2i PF GEN Line Terminal Card
ACL2i PF GEN – T65580
Part NumberDescription
TA 21513Optical Line Terminal Repeater (DF2-8), 1300 nm LED MM/SM
TA 21516Optical Line Terminal Repeater (DF2-8), 1300 nm LASER SM
TA 21518Optical Line Terminal Repeater (DF2-8), 1300 nm LASER LP
DF2-8 – TA 21518
Part NumberDescription
TC 21101DM2 Multiplexing Unit, 75ohm
TC 21301DM8 Multiplex Equipment, 75ohm
TC 21705Supervisory Substation
TC 21710.01TMS Adapter
TG 21261Ring Generator 25HZ 15W
TU 21122.5Data Interface Unit (DIU) 48..64k, V.11, 10ch
TU 21124Data Interface Unit (DIU) nx64k, V.11/V.35/X.21, 2ch
TU 21124.05Data Interface Unit (DIU) nx64k, V.11/V.35/X.21, sync
TU 21125Data Interface Unit (DIU) 48..64k with sync, X.21
DIU X.21 – TU 21125
Part NumberDescription
TU 21205Channel Unit SUB/SUB
TU 21206Channel Unit SUB/SUB
Channel Unit Subscriber / Subscriber – TU 21206
Part NumberDescription
TU 21215Channel Unit SUB/EXCH
TU 21216Channel Unit SUB/EXCH
Channel Unit Subscriber / Exchange – TU 21216
Part NumberDescription
TU 21234.20Channel Unit E&M/VF-P, 10 ch, 20 E&M ch
TU 21236.10Channel Unit 8ch E&M/uP: 2xe&m/vf
TU 21255.01Channel Switch, 4 port
TV 21640.08Power Interface Adapter DC

Legacy Telecoms Spares – Nokia ‘Dynanet’ Update

Nokia DCN Adapter – Management & Other products

The ‘Dynanet’ family of PDH Transmission telecoms products were first introduced by Nokia over 20 years ago, and were continued in recent years by DNWP. These have well served Public Operator and Private Network Customers across the Telecoms, Utilities, Transport and Public Safety markets with high availability mission critical infrastructure, and indeed some networks are continuing to provide good operational service. 

Production of the majority of the product range was ceased in 2019. However, some products remain available to order, notably the DCN Adapter C4.0, related management software products and other items such as the TPS64, NDUE and Euro / SMB connectors.

Nokia DCN Adapter

Continued Supply of Spare Parts – Surplus and Refurbished Items

@YellowsBestLtd satisfies world-wide customer product sourcing requirements for current and ‘legacy’ equipment technologies from a wide range of Original Equipment Manufacturers (O.E.M.s).

For the ‘Dynanet’ range, we should be able to continue to supply refurbished and surplus equipment for as long as required, but the effect of the discontinuation of production is squeezing the availability of remaining stocks, with a consequential impact on pricing.

Hence, for those customers continuing to maintain their networks, it is recommended to consider purchasing spare parts whilst there is still availability.  Please get in touch to advise what you need!